“What he was naked and cold – purely intellectual greatness” – the famous wit Mark Twain said about this iceberg. And what is the iceberg and how much we know about the nature of this interesting, beautiful and at the same time, dangerous phenomenon. In general, we talk about the icy mountains – because it is translated from the German word “iceberg” of the language.
1. Icebergs – huge pieces of ice, free-floating in the ocean – is drifting quite a lot: every year several tens of thousands.
2. Living and icebergs float for a long time – five years. There are long-lived and icebergs: they travel through the world’s oceans for ten years and more. And wherever they swim: in 1886 one such tramp almost crept into the English Channel.
3. The nature of icebergs correctly explained in the XVIII century, Mikhail Lomonosov. This iceberg breaks off from the shelf, that is, floating or partly based on the bottom of the glacier.
4. In the north, the native land of icebergs – Greenland, in the south – Antarctica. Northern is much more dangerous – they have a bad habit down to latitudes where lie the main transoceanic routes. In the case of the tragic meeting all happens as a joke. “What will happen if the vehicle meets with an iceberg? Iceberg float on, as if nothing had happened. ” Such examples are: we all remember what happened the night of the April 1912 with a brand new ship “Titanic.”
5. In the Russian language there is stable expression “the underwater part of the iceberg” and the “tip of the iceberg”, and everyone knows that the underwater part of the much larger. Mark explains the elementary physics: a cubic meter of ice weighs nine hundred and twenty kilograms a cubic meter of water – a little more than a ton. Therefore, about 90 percent of an iceberg is under water.
6. But what sticks out from the top is impressive, “Guinness World Records” reports that the November 12, 1956 the US merchant ship “Glacier” found in the South Pacific iceberg length of 335 kilometers and a width of 97 kilometers. This fragment of the Antarctic ice easily be accommodated State Belgium.
7. Tabular iceberg is different from the pyramidal flat and relatively flat top. These icebergs are easily mistaken for the island, especially in high latitudes, and this happened more than once. Scientists suggest that the famous Sannikov Land was a huge iceberg which melted with time.
8. Straight from the tin icebergs have a pure white color, they are aging golubeyut or green – air bubbles in the right layer of the replaced water drops. So-called “black” icebergs – icebergs it recently turned over in the water, – have a dark color and almost indistinguishable. It is believed that the “Titanic” was faced with such an iceberg.
9. Immediately after the death of “Titanic,” the biggest maritime powers signed an agreement establishing the International Ice Patrol. Icebergs are marked with bright colors, observed by satellites beacons thrown on them, and work has given results – icebergs virtually ceased.
10. It is now widely discussed idea of icebergs transport in dry areas – it’s floating stock of fresh water.